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The tree and the frame

The frame is made of wood. The wood comes from trees. What is a tree? We all know it. But a little more in-depth knowledge on the part of the framer would be useful.


Classifications of trees

The classification according to the shape of the tree is:
• Pyramidal (fir)
• Columnar (cypress)
• Globose (quince)
• Umbrella (maritime pine)

Trees for frames

Classification according to the leaves: Conifers e Broadleaves

Leaves: Conifers e Broadleaves

Classification according to the life cycle of the leaves: Evergreens and Deciduous

Leaves: Evergreens and Deciduous


In botany, the tree is the set of plant tissues that perform support functions for the plant and transport the sap from the roots to the leaves. The sap is a water-based solution, rich in sugars coming from photosynthesis.
In order to ascend upwards, the transport of the sap must overcome gravity. Its ascent is partly generated by the phenomenon of capillarity, for which the water tends to rise through small diameter pipes.
The ascent is also generated by the pressure that the salts, absorbed by the roots, provide to push the water upward.
However, to make it possible to climb more than 100 meters (as it happens in the redwoods) another characteristic of the trees is used, namely the fact that the leaves are equipped with tiny openings that allow the water to evaporate because the heat of the sun.
In this way a water void is created which draws water from adjacent areas and generates the suction that makes the water rise.

The trunk

If you cut the trunk horizontally, you notice concentric rings.
For each vegetative season, a new ring is formed and it is thus possible to determine the age of a tree by counting the rings.

Parts of the trunk

The parts of the trunk, starting from the outside towards the center, are:
• Cortex - The cortex also functions as a protection. In some cases it is made of cork.
• Cork - It is a covering tissue made up of dead cells, containing air bubbles and substances that prevent
decomposition. Cork is also used in the industrial field because it is impermeable to water and therefore water-repellent.
• Book - It is the innermost layer of the cortex. It has the function of carrying the sap. The sap is transferred from the production area (for example the mature leaf) to areas of the tree that require sugars for their growth (roots, seeds, fruits). Movement can take place in all directions.
• Gearbox - It produces wood inwards and the “book” on the outside.
• The sapwood - It is the youngest part of the tree trunk. It surrounds the innermost portion, called heartwood. • Heartwood - It is the most commercially valuable part of wood.
• Marrow - It is the central part of the trunk. In some cases it can disappear leaving a cavity.